410 Stainless Steel Annealed
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Grade 410 stainless steel annealed—also known as 410 SS annealed—is a viable material solution for applications where some corrosion resistance is necessary, but wear resistance is critical.
It is a general-purpose martensitic stainless steel alloy containing 11.5% chromium that demonstrates—in addition to superior wear resistance and good corrosion resistance to hot gases, steam, food, mild acids, freshwater, dry air, and alkalis—scaling resistance up to 650º C. The material is commonly used in the construction of automotive parts, medical instruments, nozzles, pipelines, and valves.
Properties of 410 SS Annealed
Similar to other stainless steel alloys, 410 SS annealed’s exact material composition determines the properties it exhibits. The composition and physical and mechanical properties of the material are as follows:
The percentages of the various chemical elements present in 410 SS annealed (the remaining balance being iron) include:
- Carbon: 0.080–0.150%
- Chromium: 11.50–13.50%
- Manganese: 1.0% (max.)
- Phosphorus: 1.0% (max.)
- Silicon: 1.00% (max.)
- Sulfur: 0.030% (max.)
The physical properties of 410 annealed SS include:
- Density: 0.28 lbs/in³; 7.74 g/cm³
- Specific Heat: 0.11 BTU/lb-° F (32–212° F); 0.46 J/kg-° K (0–100° C)
- Modulus of Elasticity: 29.0 x 106 psi (200 GPa)
- Thermal Conductivity @ 200° F (100° C): 14.4 BTU/hr/ft2/ft/° F (24.9 W/m-° K)
- Melting Range: 2700–2790° F (1480 – 1530°C)
- Electrical Resistivity: 22.50 Microhm-cm at 68° C; 57 Microhm-cm at 20° C
The mechanical properties of 410 annealed stainless steel at a mean temperature of 68º F (20º C) include:
- Yield Strength 0.2% Offset: 42,000 psi (290 MPa)
- Ultimate Tensile Strength: 74,000 psi (510 MPa)
- Elongation in 2 in.: 34%
- Hardness: 96 Rb max
Fabrication Data of 410 Stainless Steel Annealed
410 stainless steel annealed is suitable for use in a variety of fabrication operations, such as:
In annealing operations, this alloy is heated slowly to between 1500–1650° F (816–899° C) and cooled to 1100° F (593° C) within the furnace before being allowed to air cool. Process annealing varies slightly, heating the alloy to between 1350–1450° F (732–788° C) before allowing it to air cool.
Moderate forming is possible for this alloy in its annealed condition when worked cold.
Hot forming of 410 SS annealed begins with heating to between 1382–2102° F (750–1150° C) and is followed by air cooling. For applications involving smaller plate deformation like bending, the alloy should be preheated to between 212–572° F (100–300° C). Re-annealing or stress-relieving after substantial plate deformation should be performed at a temperature of about 1202° F (650° C).
Machining of alloy 410 stainless steel plate should occur in its annealed state, using surface speeds of 60–80 ft/min (18.3–24.4 m/min). It is also recommended that decontamination and passivation should be performed after machining.
410 SS annealed’s martensitic structure increases its material hardness, limiting its suitability for welding. When welding is performed, a post-weld heat treatment should be performed to ensure that the required properties of the finished product are attained. The weld filler usually specified for this alloy is AWS E/ER 410, 410 NiMo, or 309L.
Alternative Grades and Comparisons
When fabrication requirements require similar properties with some variation, there are several alternative grades of annealed stainless steel alloys to take into consideration, including:
- 416 for instances requiring higher machinability with acceptable lower corrosion resistance
- 420 when there is a need for higher hardness or hardened strength
- 440C when hardness and hardened strength must exceed that of the 410 and 420 grades
Fabrication requirements might also require additional material variations. Four grades that are comparable to 410 SS annealed include:
- 304: an austenitic alloy with lower carbon composition used in automotive, food handling, nuclear components, and shipping drums applications
- 316: an austenitic alloy with higher corrosion resistance properties, often used in nuclear plants, while the 316L variation works well for chemical and pharmaceutical processing
- 416: features improved machinability due to higher sulfur composition and is used to fabricate components for valves, pumps, and automatic screw machines
- 420: has very similar properties to 410, but with higher carbon content, increasing its hardness and hardened strength while retaining similar corrosion properties
Industry Standards Relevant to 410 Stainless Steel Annealed
Some of the industry standards that pertain to 410 stainless steel annealed are:
- ASTM A182
- ASTM A276
- ASTM A479
- UNS S41000
Applications of 410 Stainless Steel Annealed
410 stainless steel annealed finds application in the manufacture of a wide range of parts and products. Common applications where this alloy is the fabrication material of choice include:
Some specific industrial parts that rely upon the strength and corrosion resistant properties of 410 annealed stainless steel are petroleum fractionating structures, mine ladder rungs, and gas turbines.
At Bergsen Metals, we provide high-quality stainless steel suitable for use in a wide range of industrial applications. to learn more about 410 annealed stainless steel and other material offerings or request a quote for pricing on our materials.